5_Screening and exhibitions In Process


flip book or flick book is a book with a series of pictures that very gradually change from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. Flip books are often illustrated books for children, but may also be geared towards adults and employ a series of photographs rather than drawings. Flip books are not always separate books but may appear as an added feature in ordinary books or magazines, often in the page corners.

Flipbooks work on the same principles as frame-by-frame animation. They can be made in very many different styles. Software packages and websites are available that convert digital video files into custom-made flip books.

simple line drawings to detailed paintings

Japanese flipbooks display many of the same dramatic techniques as manga.
Flipbooks can also consist of series of very detailed photographs.

In addition to their role in the birth of cinema, flipbooks have also been commonly used in marketing of items like cars and cigarettes. They are also in art and published photographic collections. Vintage flip books are popular among collectors, and especially rare ones from the late 19th to the early 20th century have been known to fetch thousands of dollars in sales and auctions.


‘Andymation’ is the YouTube channel for Andy Bailey – a stop-motion animator and worked on Laika’s movies ParaNorman, The Boxtrolls, Kubo and the Two Strings, and Missing Link.

Andymation tutorials

He has produced a series of very useful tutorials for creating paper flipbooks using a lightbox. The same principles can be adapted for tablet Flipbook Aps.

Simple basics of making a Flipbook with examples of waving stick figure, bouncing ball and alien spaceship abduction.
Discusses perspective

What to do with just a line. Flexlines and sraight lines and learning about the physics of gravity.
How to do a much longer Flipbook with coloured scenes, drawing on Japanese anime techniques of trembly shots, framing etc. Uses reference photos and drawings to get perspective and consistency. Produces 658 pages in 35 days over 3 months.

Amusing fun with a Scribble
I hour challenge with humorous ball story
5_Screening and exhibitions In Process

Research 5.6: Animation festivals

TASK: Do some research to identify festivals that you would be interested in showing at
and attending. Look at their entry requirements and the kinds of films they show
as well as their submission dates. Make a list of any appropriate festivals.

Tip: Press Kit
When applying to festivals, many will require a ‘press kit’. This includes several stills from the animation, stills from the production of the animation, a short synopsis, a list of all those credited in the creation of the animation, an image of the director and short biographies of all those involved in the making of the animation.
A synopsis should sound like the paragraph on the back of the DVD or video jacket. The point of the synopsis is to make the reader want to see the movie.

The Directory of International Film and Video Festivals is a searchable
database of 600 festivals around the world. You can search by genre, deadline, month and country to find full details.
FLAMIN has a list of upcoming listings and opportunities to apply for. Other festivals you may be interested in are:
● Oberhausen
● Eyeworks
● London Animation Festival
● Annecy International Animation Festival
● Anne Arbour
● Punto Y Raya

5_Screening and exhibitions In Process

Research 5.5: Performance, expanded cinema and animation

Find examples of animation that challenge the role of the audience. Reflect on how the audience have been included in the performance or presentation of the animation, and how this challenges ideas of audience, participation, cinema or animation.

Tip: Writing a gallery proposal
When working with galleries, whether you are making work to be shown inside or out, as a standalone piece or a performance you need to develop a gallery proposal. This short document sets out the nature of the work being proposed and practical aspects of installing it. Any proposal should contain a description of the work itself, its content or concept, scale and duration, any technical information or installation requirements, and proposed audience.

As a starting point, consider the following performances:
● Man Ray, White Ball (1930):
All party guests were dressed in white, Man Ray and Lee Miller projected
tinted films by Georges Méliès on them while they danced.
● Giovanni Martedi, Matérialisme Dialectique l’art (series)(1978):
Its action consisted of projecting the beam of a projector loaded with any
film- “found in a trash can” or “ready made”– onto a rotating circular
mirror attached to a drill. The mirror thus reflected the images all over the
space by flashes and fragments. This performance took its inspiration
from Valie Export’s Abstract Film Number One (1967-68).
● Maurice Lemaître, Montage (1978-1990):
A performance made with aleatory found footage projected onto a screen
made with newspapers, while the audience reads imaginary scripts
distributed by Lemaître himself.
● Roland Sabatier, Look Somewhere Else (1971):
“The audience is invited not to look at the work or at its execution.”

5_Screening and exhibitions In Process

Research 5.4: Animations outside the gallery or cinema

Do some research to identify three different examples of showing work using the internet or mobile platforms or setting up animations as an installation outside of gallery or cinema spaces. Reflect on how these approaches engages an audience that might be different to conventional approaches to art or cinema.

As a starting point, look at:
● LUX online:
● Matt’s Gallery:
● Animate Projects:

5_Screening and exhibitions In Process

Research 5.3: Gallery Installations

Review photographic and other documentation of animations that have been
included in gallery installations. Make notes on how the artist has chosen to
install their work, thinking about the format, frame, atmosphere, and audience.
Think about the practical issues of these installations in terms of the equipment
and other objects that were needed, and the duration of the screenings.
Compare the differences in presentation and reflect on how you might apply
these approaches to your own animations.

You can find your own artists or look at the artists suggested, below:
● Benedict Drew (Whitechapel Gallery Exhibit)
● Sondra Perry (Serpentine Gallery Exhibit)
● Jeff Keen (Tate Modern Gallery Exhibit)
● Ryan Trecartin (Moma PS1 Exhibit)
● Harun Farocki (Whitechapel Gallery Exhibit)

5_Screening and exhibitions In Process

Research 5.2: Viewing different scales and durations

TASK: Choose three different films or video with animated content that you have seen recently: one in the cinema and another on a phone, laptop or tablet.
● Write about the difference between these three viewing experiences.
● Do you think the scale of the screen affected how you understood the film and your ability to concentrate?
● If so, in what ways was this so and what were the factors that differed in each case? (such as duration, context, sound, quality, format).
Briefly write up your thoughts in your learning log. Is certain subject matter that you think is better suited to a particular scale or duration?

5_Screening and exhibitions In Process

Research 5.1: optical devices

Search online for other examples of using phénakistoscopes, optical devices, flipbooks or Arduino or Raspberry Pi software.
You can watch footage of T. McLean’s optical illusions or magic panorama (1833) by performing a quick google search.
Find and name a range of optical toys and devices either from the 19th and 20th century, or later if you are interested in software related devices. Reference images, names, and any related animations for each device in your learning log with a short description.

2_Invention, Plasticity and Visual Music 5_Screening and exhibitions In Process

Research 2.4 Bouncing Balls

Types of Ball

Physics of Ball Motion


Bouncing Balls Adobe Animate Motion Tween

Jazza Adobe Animate motion tweened bouncing ball and curve path.
Aaron Blaise TPPaint Frame by Frame. Exaggerated squash and stretch. Keeps straight line from impact. Redraws up bounce instead of duolicating and reversing to stop things being mechanical.

Tv paint
Frame by Frame

TV Paint Frame by Frame Simple UpdDown Bounce
TVPaint FbF Horizontal Bounce
TV Paint FbF Complex perspective bounce