E2.7-2.10: Pose to Pose Animation

Direct animation
vs Pose to Pose

Direct animation

‘Direct’ animation is an open-ended ‘adventure’ that starts by drawing, sculpting or photographing the first frame of the animation and then capturing each subsequent frame, progressively building up movement sequentially. This is the workflow of animation methods like Stop Motion and the Visual Music experiments. Although the process may follow some sort of storyboard and underlying narrative idea, the relationship between frames is not easy to control without a lot of practice, and not all accidents are ‘happy’.

Pose to Pose animation

‘Pose to Pose’ animation is a more more controlled and considered approach to movement devised to ensure that the animated process can be planned for ahead of making; easily revised; and split up into a division of labour in commercial studios. It is possible to anticipate where a particular action might end and how long a particular action will take- useful when working alongside sound and in planning the overall rhythm and structure of a sequence. In hand or computer drawn animation, it is possible to make continual changes to the movement itself, returning to a sequence to insert or replace frames. A very jerky leap up and down can be changed to a slow glide into the air or a sudden crash downwards can be avoided by simply adding more frames into the upward movement and taking away a few frames towards the end of the movement. Or crashes and disasters exaggerated by removing or changing position of frames.

E2.7 Time Chart

To use pose to pose you draw the beginning and end of each main pose and any interesting ‘extreme’ poses between them (all known as keyframes) and then go back later to fill in the less dramatic frames in-between these keyframes (known as ‘inbetweens’). The more in-betweens you insert between an action the slower, and smoother it will become. It is not however the number of in-betweens between keyframes that matters, but their spatial and time distribution. If the in-betweens are equally spaced in time and distance then the resulting movement will be at a constant rate. If the spacing of time and/or distance is irregular then the movement will be more dynamic and lively.

A time chart is used to plan out the placement of the keyframes and in-between drawings.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is cg_mi4ani_Timechart.jpg
Three key poses are pictured: 1, 7 and 17. Drawings 3, 5, 9, 11, 13 and 15 are planned on the timechart below the drawings. Note the distribution of in-betweens planned for frames 1-5 and 9-17. The dog’s head will move quicker between frames 1-7 because the spacing is further apart in the same time. It then slows down toward the end, between 7-17 with much less distance covered in the same time.

Draw an animation time chart indicating key poses and placement of
in-betweens for two movements from the list below:
● A leaf falling from a tree
● Pin dropping on a hard surface
● Piece of paper being torn in half
● Coffee cup being knocked over
Marble rolling off a table
Ice melting
Upload the charts onto your learning log.

Drawing showing the different factors that influence the behaviour of a marble – none of these timings are fixed but depend on how strongly the marble is rolled, the height of the table and whether the marble is big and heavy or small and lighter. See Post on Bouncing Balls and E2.9 below.

Ice Cubes

!!to do. Much more gradual. But do Inunclude all the details of the sudden cracks?

E2.8 Keyframes and

TASK: Draw the key frames and in-betweens of one of your chosen movements. Scan or photograph your frames to make an animation or animated gif. You may want to add extra frames or play the movement backwards and forwards making it into a loop.
Upload the result onto your learning log as well as any amendments you made to your drawn diagram.

Drawing of the keyframes and in-betweens based on 2 second animation and the time chart.
TVPaint animation with handdrawn Keyframes in red and in-betweens in blue using FbF with speed adjustments to follow diagram. No squash and stretch was applied because marbles are hard and do not squash. I could have got more consistency in shape and size by pasting copies of a ball Custom Brush instead of handdrawing.

E2.9 Interpolation

Digital key frames and Interpolation

2D computer animation is built up from key frames. If starting point A and an end point B are set as ‘key frames’ most software (Adobe Animate, TVPaint, Adobe After Effects, Adobe Premier and Final Cut Pro but not eg Procreate or Corel Painter) will be able to work out all the in-between stages needed to move from A to B. This process of filling in the in-betweens is called interpolation or ‘tweening’.

There are two types of interpolation:

  • Linear interpolation will move an object from A to B at a constant rate as if the in-betweens were plotted on the time chart at equal distances from each other.
  • Bezier interpolation allows adjustment in the curve of movement so that the object will move at a variable pace: speeding up and slowing down.

Software specifically designed to 2D animation enables either direct frame by frame drawing and/or importing drawings and images that can then be combined and animated with fine control over the interpolation curves.

Watch the tutorials on linear and Bezier interpolation on the Khan Academy website:
Complete the featured exercise ‘Animation with Linear Interpolation’ using their interactive animation page.

I did not find the Khan Academy explanation particularly detailed compared to work I had done on another on-line animation course with Howard Wimshurst.

I started by doing more thorough research on You Tube about the physics of Bouncing Balls and different approaches to animating them. Adobe Animate has much more precise and user-friendly motion tween features. But TV paint also enables motion tweening and some degree of control over the speed curves. Because I was interested in marbles for this project, again I did not add squash and stretch – though some motion blur might have been good. The Red Ball animation was done as part of my Howard Wimshurst course using Frame by Frame animation in Procreate on my iPad – a softer squishier ball using squash and stretch.

See detailed post:

Research 2.4 Bouncing Balls

TV Paint animation using Motion effect and tweening comparing linear interpolation, Bezier C curve and Bezier S curve.
Earlier animation using Procreate on my iPad

E2.10 Keyframing

TASK: Use digital software to animate one of the movements from the same list as in Exercise 7.
● A leaf falling from a tree
● Pin dropping on a hard surface
● Piece of paper being torn in half
● Coffee cup being knocked over
Marble rolling off a table
● Ice melting

Marble falling off a table using TV Paint motion tween features. I used the original keyframe drawing from E2.8 as a hidden layer. Because the speed controls in TV Paint are quite complex, designed for much more art-style animation rather than motion graphics, I found it difficult to control the interpolation speed at each keyframe. Adobe Animate would be better for this task, or TVPaint Frame by Frame using a ball Custom Brush to maintain consistency in shape and size. But the exercise was very useful in helping me familiarise myself with these features in TVPaint.

E1.3: Rotating on a Chair

For this animation I was asked to make a drawn animated loop of about 24-48 frames of a chair spinning 360 degrees. I did this on my iPad in Procreate.

  • Step 1: Set up a chair in the middle of the room. This was a little bit tricky as there is no room in my house where it is possible to have a chair in the middle far enough away to move around while maintaining the same distance and viewpoint because other furniture gets in the way. I could have added an object, but the simple chair was in itself enough of an interesting challenge.
  • Step 2: Make a drawing of the chair (and object). Work fast, loose and try to fill most of the page. No more than 3 minutes per drawing. Then move your seating position a few degrees to the right and make another drawing from this new perspective. Then move and draw again until you have encircled the chair and made drawings from roughly all positions around it. Number your drawings as you go along on the corner of the page.

I did very quick sketches in Procreate on my iPad, some shaded and some not. Using onion skinning to maintain some semblance of alignment and scale despite the need to draw from slightly different distances and heights to avoid furniture/stand or sit etc. I actually quite like some of the variation – it seems like the chair is sometimes coming nearer, sometimes receding and the occasional shaded frames add interest. I could experiment a lot more with this – adding more or less variation, doing all shaded shapes or all sketches and getting mor or less constancy in size through cropping/transformation and redrawing with more accurate linear perspective.

  • Step 3: Import your images into your editing software. Starting with 24 frames per second, I experimented frame rates: 6FPS, 12 FPS and 15 FPS, and with loop and pingpong variants.
Chair revolving 24fps
Chair revolving pingpong 12fps
Chair revolving 15fps
Chair revolving 6fps

E1.2: Make an animated GIF ‘Boil’

This project asked me to make 8 drawings through tracing over a photograph either with a pencil and lightbox, or digitally. Keeping the lines fast and loose, making new images rather than keeping fidelity to the original. Then to repeat the exercise, experimenting with how tightly or loosely I do the drawing. And with the order of frames. I was then asked to create an animated gif and upload to my blog.

I chose to do this project in Procreate on my iPad to experiment with different drawing styles. I uploaded as an mp4 file because animated gifs do not play in WordPress unless enbedded. I did not want to upload thus preliminary work to vimeo or You Tube.

TASK: A Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is a file format that supports animated and still images. It is a computer file composed of a series of images (numbering between 2 to several hundred). It is a relatively dated file format (invented in 1987) but still exists today. It allows an animation to loop endlessly and is often used in social media.

Cat Waiting pencil
Cat Waiting subtle moving

Cat Waiting ink line
Cat waiting subtle move
Cat waiting green and brown acrylic